MongoDB

RDBMSMongoDB
DatabaseDatabase
TableCollection
Tuple/RowDocument
columnField
Table JoinEmbedded Documents
Primary KeyPrimary Key (Default key _id provided by MongoDB itself)
{
   _id: ObjectId(7df78ad8902c)
   title: 'MongoDB Overview', 
   description: 'MongoDB is no sql database',
   by: 'tutorials point',
   url: 'http://www.tutorialspoint.com',
   tags: ['mongodb', 'database', 'NoSQL'],
   likes: 100, 
   comments: [	
      {
         user:'user1',
         message: 'My first comment',
         dateCreated: new Date(2011,1,20,2,15),
         like: 0 
      },
      {
         user:'user2',
         message: 'My second comments',
         dateCreated: new Date(2011,1,25,7,45),
         like: 5
      }
   ]
}

Embedded Data Model

In this model, you can have (embed) all the related data in a single document, it is also known as de-normalized data model.

For example, assume we are getting the details of employees in three different documents namely, Personal_details, Contact and, Address, you can embed all the three documents in a single one

{
	_id: ,
	Emp_ID: "10025AE336"
	Personal_details:{
		First_Name: "Radhika",
		Last_Name: "Sharma",
		Date_Of_Birth: "1995-09-26"
	},
	Contact: {
		e-mail: "radhika_sharma.123@gmail.com",
		phone: "9848022338"
	},
	Address: {
		city: "Hyderabad",
		Area: "Madapur",
		State: "Telangana"
	}
}

Normalized Data Model

In this model, you can refer the sub documents in the original document, using references. For example, you can re-write the above document in the normalized model as:

Employee:

{
	_id: <ObjectId101>,
	Emp_ID: "10025AE336"
}

Personal_details:

{
	_id: <ObjectId102>,
	empDocID: " ObjectId101",
	First_Name: "Radhika",
	Last_Name: "Sharma",
	Date_Of_Birth: "1995-09-26"
}

Contact:

{
	_id: <ObjectId103>,
	empDocID: " ObjectId101",
	e-mail: "radhika_sharma.123@gmail.com",
	phone: "9848022338"
}

Address:

{
	_id: <ObjectId104>,
	empDocID: " ObjectId101",
	city: "Hyderabad",
	Area: "Madapur",
	State: "Telangana"
}
show dbs; //show all databases
use db;//select database
db;//current database
db.movie.insert({"name":"tutorials point"})//insert document to collection
db.dropDatabase()//remove database
db.createCollection("mycollection")//create collection
db.COLLECTION_NAME.drop()//remove collection
show databases // display all databases
use database //select or create database
show collections // display all collections
db.post.insert([
	{
		title: "MongoDB Overview",
		description: "MongoDB is no SQL database",
		by: "tutorials point",
		url: "http://www.tutorialspoint.com",
		tags: ["mongodb", "database", "NoSQL"],
		likes: 100
	},
	{
	title: "NoSQL Database",
	description: "NoSQL database doesn't have tables",
	by: "tutorials point",
	url: "http://www.tutorialspoint.com",
	tags: ["mongodb", "database", "NoSQL"],
	likes: 20,
	comments: [
		{
			user:"user1",
			message: "My first comment",
			dateCreated: new Date(2013,11,10,2,35),
			like: 0
		}
	]
}
])
db.empDetails.find(
	{
		$nor:[
			40
			{"First_Name": "Radhika"},
			{"Last_Name": "Christopher"}
		]
	}
)
db.COLLECTION_NAME.find(
	{
		$NOT: [
			{key1: value1}, {key2:value2}
		]
	}
)
db.empDetails.find( { "Age": { $not: { $gt: "25" } } } )
OperationSyntaxExampleRDBMS Equivalent
Equality{<key>:{$eg;<value>}}db.mycol.find({“by”:”tutorials point”}).pretty()where by = ‘tutorials point’
Less Than{<key>:{$lt:<value>}}db.mycol.find({“likes”:{$lt:50}}).pretty()where likes < 50
Less Than Equals{<key>:{$lte:<value>}}db.mycol.find({“likes”:{$lte:50}}).pretty()where likes <= 50
Greater Than{<key>:{$gt:<value>}}db.mycol.find({“likes”:{$gt:50}}).pretty()where likes > 50
Greater Than Equals{<key>:{$gte:<value>}}db.mycol.find({“likes”:{$gte:50}}).pretty()where likes >= 50
Not Equals{<key>:{$ne:<value>}}db.mycol.find({“likes”:{$ne:50}}).pretty()where likes != 50
Values in an array{<key>:{$in:[<value1>, <value2>,……<valueN>]}}db.mycol.find({“name”:{$in:[“Raj”, “Ram”, “Raghu”]}}).pretty()Where name matches any of the value in :[“Raj”, “Ram”, “Raghu”]
Values not in an array{<key>:{$nin:<value>}}db.mycol.find({“name”:{$nin:[“Ramu”, “Raghav”]}}).pretty()Where name values is not in the array :[“Ramu”, “Raghav”] or, doesn’t exist at all
{"x":{"$exists":true}} // = {"x":{"$ne":null}}

update and Save()

db.mycol.update({'title':'MongoDB Overview'},
   {$set:{'title':'New MongoDB Tutorial'}},{multi:true})
>db.mycol.save( //for insert or update
   {
      "_id" : ObjectId("507f191e810c19729de860ea"), 
		"title":"Tutorials Point New Topic",
      "by":"Tutorials Point"
   }
)
WriteResult({
	"nMatched" : 0,
	"nUpserted" : 1,
	"nModified" : 0,
	"_id" : ObjectId("507f191e810c19729de860ea")
})
>db.mycol.find()
{ "_id" : ObjectId("507f191e810c19729de860e6"), "title":"Tutorials Point New Topic",
   "by":"Tutorials Point"}
{ "_id" : ObjectId("507f191e810c19729de860e6"), "title":"NoSQL Overview"}
{ "_id" : ObjectId("507f191e810c19729de860e6"), "title":"Tutorials Point Overview"}
db.empDetails.updateOne(
	{First_Name: 'Radhika'},
	{ $set: { Age: '30',e_mail: 'radhika_newemail@gmail.com'}}
)
{ "acknowledged" : true, "matchedCount" : 1, "modifiedCount" : 0 }
db.empDetails.updateMany(
	{Age:{ $gt: "25" }},
	{ $set: { Age: '00'}}
)
db.mycol.remove({'title':'MongoDB Overview'})
WriteResult({"nRemoved" : 1})
db.mycol.find()
{"_id" : ObjectId("507f191e810c19729de860e2"), "title" : "NoSQL Overview" }
{"_id" : ObjectId("507f191e810c19729de860e3"), "title" : "Tutorials Point Overview" }

limit and sort

db.mycol.find({},{"title":1,_id:0}).limit(1).skip(1)
{"title":"NoSQL Overview"}
db.COLLECTION_NAME.find().sort({KEY:1})

indexing

db.mycol.createIndex({"title":1,"description":-1})
db.mycol.dropIndexes({"title":1,"description":-1})
db.members.createIndex( { "user_id": 1 }, { unique: true } )
db.COLLECTION_NAME.getIndexes()
db.COLLECTION_NAME.dropIndexes()
ParameterTypeDescription
backgroundBooleanBuilds the index in the background so that building an index does not block other database activities. Specify true to build in the background. The default value is false.
uniqueBooleanCreates a unique index so that the collection will not accept insertion of documents where the index key or keys match an existing value in the index. Specify true to create a unique index. The default value is false.
namestringThe name of the index. If unspecified, MongoDB generates an index name by concatenating the names of the indexed fields and the sort order.
sparseBooleanIf true, the index only references documents with the specified field. These indexes use less space but behave differently in some situations (particularly sorts). The default value is false.
expireAfterSecondsintegerSpecifies a value, in seconds, as a TTL to control how long MongoDB retains documents in this collection.
weightsdocumentThe weight is a number ranging from 1 to 99,999 and denotes the significance of the field relative to the other indexed fields in terms of the score.
default_languagestringFor a text index, the language that determines the list of stop words and the rules for the stemmer and tokenizer. The default value is English.
language_overridestringFor a text index, specify the name of the field in the document that contains, the language to override the default language. The default value is language.

projection

MongoClient.connect(url, function(err, db) {
  if (err) throw err;
  var dbo = db.db("mydb");
  dbo.collection("customers").find({}, { projection: { _id: 0, name: 1, address: 1 } }).toArray(function(err, result) {
    if (err) throw err;
    console.log(result);
    db.close();
  });
});

aggregate() Method

{
   _id: ObjectId(7df78ad8902c)
   title: 'MongoDB Overview', 
   description: 'MongoDB is no sql database',
   by_user: 'tutorials point',
   url: 'http://www.tutorialspoint.com',
   tags: ['mongodb', 'database', 'NoSQL'],
   likes: 100
},
{
   _id: ObjectId(7df78ad8902d)
   title: 'NoSQL Overview', 
   description: 'No sql database is very fast',
   by_user: 'tutorials point',
   url: 'http://www.tutorialspoint.com',
   tags: ['mongodb', 'database', 'NoSQL'],
   likes: 10
},
{
   _id: ObjectId(7df78ad8902e)
   title: 'Neo4j Overview', 
   description: 'Neo4j is no sql database',
   by_user: 'Neo4j',
   url: 'http://www.neo4j.com',
   tags: ['neo4j', 'database', 'NoSQL'],
   likes: 750
}

//similar to count method
db.mycol.aggregate([{$group : {_id : "$by_user", num_tutorial : {$sum : 1}}}])
{ "_id" : "tutorials point", "num_tutorial" : 2 }
{ "_id" : "Neo4j", "num_tutorial" : 1 }

Following are the possible stages in aggregation framework −

  • $project − Used to select some specific fields from a collection.
  • $match − This is a filtering operation and thus this can reduce the amount of documents that are given as input to the next stage.
  • $group − This does the actual aggregation as discussed above.
  • $sort − Sorts the documents.
  • $skip − With this, it is possible to skip forward in the list of documents for a given amount of documents.
  • $limit − This limits the amount of documents to look at, by the given number starting from the current positions.
  • $unwind − This is used to unwind document that are using arrays. When using an array, the data is kind of pre-joined and this operation will be undone with this to have individual documents again. Thus with this stage we will increase the amount of documents for the next stage.
ExpressionDescriptionExample
$sumSums up the defined value from all documents in the collection.db.mycol.aggregate([{$group : {_id : “$by_user”, num_tutorial : {$sum : “$likes”}}}])
$avgCalculates the average of all given values from all documents in the collection.db.mycol.aggregate([{$group : {_id : “$by_user”, num_tutorial : {$avg : “$likes”}}}])
$minGets the minimum of the corresponding values from all documents in the collection.db.mycol.aggregate([{$group : {_id : “$by_user”, num_tutorial : {$min : “$likes”}}}])
$maxGets the maximum of the corresponding values from all documents in the collection.db.mycol.aggregate([{$group : {_id : “$by_user”, num_tutorial : {$max : “$likes”}}}])
$pushInserts the value to an array in the resulting document.db.mycol.aggregate([{$group : {_id : “$by_user”, url : {$push: “$url”}}}])
$addToSetInserts the value to an array in the resulting document but does not create duplicates.db.mycol.aggregate([{$group : {_id : “$by_user”, url : {$addToSet : “$url”}}}])
$firstGets the first document from the source documents according to the grouping. Typically this makes only sense together with some previously applied “$sort”-stage.db.mycol.aggregate([{$group : {_id : “$by_user”, first_url : {$first : “$url”}}}])
$lastGets the last document from the source documents according to the grouping. Typically this makes only sense together with some previously applied “$sort”-stage.db.mycol.aggregate([{$group : {_id : “$by_user”, last_url : {$last : “$url”}}}])